As we go about on roads in our daily lives, it is very easy to take it for granted that the roads we drive on took a lot of time to be built. And the effort by many skilled people working together in multiple teams. Computer Aided Design, CAD as usual will be used at a very early stage for design and presentation to the various parties involved.
Here is a nice picture by Merriam Webster, on what consists below the worn road surfaces we always see:
The above picture gives a cross sectional view of the different materials used in building a road, and the thickness of the various components. The picture below also shows other utility items that would normally be constructed together with the road, so that you need not dig up the road later to put them in. Examples of these are telephone and electricity cables. Telephone cables could consist of copper and also optical fiber cables. Water mains and also gas pipes are normally planned to be inserted below the surface as well. Gutters which are built along the sides of the road are very, very important components, as the drain away water from the road after rainfalls. Water besides being dangerous to road users, also causes the road to deteriorate faster.
Picture source : Infovisual.info
Roads are planned and designed by a subsection of Civil Engineering which is called Highway Engineering. Road building is also normally included as part of the learning material in Civil Engineering.
Below are some Computer Aided Design CAD drawings showing how CAD is used while designing and planning roads, at various stages.
To be continued..